Chicago Landscapes

This gallery contains 12 photos.

Living in Chicago is inspirational.  During our family’s time there, I was thankful to be able to enjoy the public parks.  It’s a great place for ‘plein air’, open air, painting.  Working from observation opened a creative door for me. … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Beach Scenes in watercolor

The summer of 2o14, I was able to go to the beach two times. On the first trip, I was afforded the opportunity to stay in a friend’s home that was on the sound side.  There at the doorstep was the still brackish water outlined by mussels and marsh grasses.  I was the first time that I was able to navigate the sound waters in a kayak, a perspective that is so close to the water’s surface that I imagined that this is what a heron or an egret sees.  The painting I made was not from the kayak, perhaps that will come later, but it was from the deck overlooking the sound, about 30 feet up. It is observational.

Topsail Sound, 7-2014 watercolor&caulk on paper

Topsail Sound, 7-2014
watercolor&caulk on paper

On the second trip, I was afforded the opportunity to stay in another friend’s home that was close to the oceanfront.  While my family enjoyed floating in the water, napping and walking along the shore, I painted. It was quick and observational, but more of a study in color.  The sky, the surf and the sand mesh together into a rainbow of blues and greens and yellows and browns that makeup one of my favorite landscapes.  As I sat there, brush in hand, the colors were shifting so quickly in the surf that the resulting painting is more of an impression, a collection of observations into one painting.

Ocean Isle, 8-2014 watercolor&caulk on paper

Ocean Isle, 8-2014
watercolor&caulk on paper

Posted in Drawing, Landscapes, plein air, watercolor | Leave a comment

Entomology- Apis Mellifera, HoneyBee, Drone

References:
Beekeeping basics, PennState Extension, 2007
First Lesson in Beekeeping, Dadant & Sons Inc., 1980
Insectopedia, Hugh Raffles, 2010

In the social order of honeybee hives, drones are the males.  They are in the minority, only a few hundred drones among the average 60,000 population in a single colony.  Their job is the fertilization of the new queens.  That’s it.  Flying around at altitudes of 40-200 feet, the drones look for and fertilize the virgin queen bees.  Ideally, the drones are finding queens from other colonies and thus increasing the genetic diversity.

Compared to the female worker bee, the drone’s work is limited.  The female worker bee is born and begins to clean cells of the hive.  Her jobs progress as she ages, taking up nine different jobs until finally in her last stage she graduates to the role of forager.  As a forager she goes out into the hill and vale to collect nectar and pollen.  While her life includes a chronological progression of jobs, the male drone has a life of singular focus seen in his anatomy: no stinger, no pollen baskets, and no wax glands.

The mystery is that although the drone seems to make a singular contribution to the colony, their role is vital.  In the visual survey of ‘things that mark a healthy colony’ the beekeeper is looking for the presence of drone cells.  The mystery deepens, drones take the longest to mature: 24 days.  Comparatively, the queens have a developmental period of 21 days and worker bees take 16 days to reach maturity.

So how do drones discover their job?  What reminds them of their purpose?  What has been observed by the German scientist, Karl von Frisch, is that queens emit pheromones that attracts the drones to herself.   Thus when a virgin queen takes her maiden flight outside of the hive, she draws a cloud of drones to herself.  Her pheromones are also emitted within the hive and have a calming affect on the whole colony, to regulate their activity.  The workers are drawn to her, to feed her, to facilitate her job of laying eggs.  Frisch also noted that when the queen is in the hive with other drones, they are not attracted to her.

In the Spring, when the nectar flow begins and while it holds, the colony is in the mode for swarming.  The drone population increases in anticipation of this event.  Swarming is a reaction of the colony to cramped quarters.  This season includes the creation of new queens.  About 60% of the colony population leaves the hive with the queens and searches for new hive.

In the Fall, after the nectar flow has stopped, the drones days are numbered.  This time of year is a time of vulnerability for the colony.  So in preparation to live on a limited food supply, the workers drag the drones from the hive and if they do not leave the hive willing they will be stung to death.

About the painting:

Visually the drones are  larger than the female workers.   Their eyes are anatomically larger, wrapping up and around their heads.  In this drawing, I  made a study of drone anatomy.  There are three charcoal studies to the left:  from the front, from the back and the right profile.  At the bottom, there is an investigative color study.  Finally, there is a full color watercolor painting of the drone.  All of this work was made from one of drones from my hive.  I found him one day,  perched motionless on the hive stand.  He was dead.

Apis Mellifera, Honeybee Drone, 2014

Posted in entomology, watercolor | Leave a comment

Opportunity: Sawooth Class, ‘Botanical Illustration’

Sawtooth Class: Botanical Illustration

Saturday workshop: May 17, 10am-1pm

Sign up through the Sawtooth website.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Botanical Illustration- Blooms and Bzzzzzz.

Reference Materials
(1) USDA
(2) Xerces Society– Pollinator Conservation
(3) FAO-United NationsApisUK
(4) Knowledge Scotland
(5) My little garden blog
(6) Xerces Society- Pollinators are Garden Essentials
(7) Linné Online
(8) Insects and Flowers, The Art of Maria Sibylla Merian. 2008, Getty Museum. Brafman and Schrader
(9) The Anatomy of the Honey Bee, by R.E. Snodgrass 1910
(10) Introduction to Bee Biology by David Stone, 2005
(11) The Art of Botanical Illustration, Wilfred Blunt & William T. Stearn, 1994
(12) The Forgotten Pollinators, Stephen L. Buchmann & Gary Paul Nabhan, Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, 1996
(13) Images of Science, Brian J. Ford, Oxford Press, 1993
(14) Das entdeckte Geheimniss der Natur im Bau und in der Befruchtung der Blumen,
[The discovered Secret of Nature in the Structure and in the Fecundation of Flowers]
(Berlin 1793)
(15) Insects , Jean Henri Fabre, edited by David Black & illustrated by Stephen Lee, 1979

 

Preface:  I owe many thanks to the references listed above. These articles and books were great resources in studying the relationship between blooms and bees.

dead-bees-spring-2014

Collected honeybee specimens that died over the winter.

In reading a book about pollinators, The Forgotten Pollinators, I was reminded of the relationship of blooms and bees;  one that is most likely invisible to our busy lifestyles.  The author begins:  “It is late fall – nearly winter solstice- but because the day is sunny, it is not too late to find a yellow and black bumblebee working one of the last blooms in our garden this year.  It alights on a wand-like branch of a desert fairy duster….It is there to gather nectar, a sweet liquid diet that is increasingly scarce at this time of year.  And yet, from the flower’s perspective, the bumblebee itself is a scarce resource; it has produced plenty of nectar and pollen, but until that creature landed in its midst, its own reproduction was in no way assured.”

Whether we notice or not, the impact of this relationship is big.  The majority of flowering plants, 70-80%, rely on pollinators:  wind, water, birds, mammals or insects.  Narrowing down that group, insects are the biggest responsible party, bees being best.  There are 25-30 thousand species of bees that are effective pollinators.

ABC’s of plant reproduction

Blossom anatomy

Okra blossom anatomy, from blog: my little vegetable garden

  • Pollination is the act of transferring the pollen grains, from the anther, the male part, to the stigma, the female part, of the same flower or another flower.  The pollen grains are the flower’s male sex cells and in many species they require transportation to be received by the stigma, the female organ,  of another flower. The pollen travels down the pistil and the fertilization of the ovary combines the male and female DNA.
  • Cross-pollination  takes place when pollen is transferred between flowers of the same species; then they are able to create seeds with new DNA combinations.
  • Ovary, located at the base of the Pistil tube, contains the ovules, that when fertilized will develop into fruit and carry the seed, the bearers of genetic code.
  • Crop yield and fruit quality is greatly increased with pollination.

Pollination is a vital point of connectedness between the plant world and the animal world: namely biodiversity.   The diversity of lifeforms is responsible for what we consider essential: our food, our drink and our clothing.  The relationship between plants and animals and insects is symbiotic and thus cannot be assumed to be free or to be ignored.   A loss of clean resources such as water or native vegetation and the development of monoculture cultivation are threats to the pollinator population and diversity.

And with that biology primer, how did we come to that understanding of the relationship between bees and blooms?  Specifically, how was botanical illustration part of that path?  That answer will be sought by studying the stories of individual scientists/artists.

Carl Linnaeus (1707 –  1778)

Carl Linnaeus's Systema Naturae (1736), illustration by Georg Ehret

Carl Linnaeus’s Systema Naturae (1736), illustration by Georg Ehret

Systematics, the order in nature, according to relationship, is a long standing pursuit by the students of botany.  Looking for an order in nature led to a series of classification systems.  In 300 B.C. Theophrastus (Greek) created a system for ‘plants  categorized either as herbs or trees or even by a description of their petals’ (linne online).  In 77 AD the Greek doctor Dioscorides, created a new system of arrangement based on the medicinal benefits of plants. Carl Linnaeus’ study in botany made him familiar with all of the classification systems.  He also studied plant sexuality, from the publications by Sébastien Vaillant (French, 1669 – 1722).  Vaillant’s work titled, Botanicon parisiensis, introduces the terms stamen, ovary, and egg.  Valliant’s work helped lead Linnaeus to the conclusion that plant classification should be based on their means of reproduction/propagation, specifically by their number of pistils and stamens.

Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues (c.1533-88), Sweet violet (Viola odorata) and red admiral butterfly (Vanessa atalanta)

Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues (c.1533-88), Sweet violet (Viola odorata) and red admiral butterfly (Vanessa atalanta)

Systematic botany is rooted in the study of herbals with the anticipated harvest of medicinally beneficial plants.  Description and discrimination were critical  in the early stages of classification, the plants were ordered by medicinal properties.  In the example set by pioneers such as Theophrastus and  Dioscorides, herbal book authors gave the text the greatest importance, and thus descriptions of taste, smell, edibility and medicinal application.  Botanical illustrators did not yet grasp the importance of observing and drawing the details of the structure of the plants.  In this illustration by Morgues, the sweet violet lacks life and is most likely the result of copybook, whereas the red admiral butterfly is the result of genuine observation and is full of life.

 

Das entdeckte Geheimniss der Natur im Bau und in der Befruchtung der Blumen,
[The discovered Secret of Nature in the Structure and in the Fecundation of Flowers]
(Berlin 1793), by C.K. Sprengel

C.K. Sprengel

C.K. Sprengel

This book’s premise is an idea that pollinated my brain and led to this talk and to the new paintings I’m now making.  Sprengel was making the connection – the relationship between pollinators and blooms.

Blunt and Stearn, who wrote about the history of botanical illustration, describe this  book by Sprengel:

the book is a classic of biological literature, revealing almost for the first time and in surprising detail the interrelation between the form and colour of flowers and their insect guests, shown by Sprengel to be necessary for pollination and subsequent production of fruit and seeds. It much influenced Charles Darwin’s study of floral biology.  His study of floral mechanisms and associated insects, which manifested to him the wisdom of God in the creation of the natural world, resulted in this “wonderful book” (Darwin’s words). (11)

mdp.39015011447284-285

C.K. Sprengel

What strikes me about this artist, C.K. Sprengel, is that he was thinking, making connections and seeing more than his eyes could take in.  He was scratching at the invisible realm of relationships and their genesis.  It’s important to note that his ideas were new and therefore mostly rejected and scoffed.  It took a generation to consider them and other people, such as Charles Darwin, to be inspired by his published book in order for their significance to be appreciated.

As an artist, I love this book’s illustrations because of the following qualities:

  • It appears that he made many illustrations of bloom in mugshot fashion.  Alphonse Bertillon would be proud. The multiple views of blooms in profile, in full frontal, complete and dissected present a more complete anatomical understanding.  And what’s more, on several of the sheets there are bees intermixed with the flowers.  Sometimes they’re in active pollen collecting mode and sometimes they are splayed out like iconic eagles.
  • The myriad of views suggests an artist who made great efforts to genuinely understand his subject. Observational work is quality work.  The views of the bees inside of the blooms confirm the time Sprengel must have spent in the garden.
  • It’s hard to decipher his process, but it appears to have elements of a collage.  The tight composition suggests illustrations that were made separately and then clipped and compiled into a comprehensive view.

Maria Sibylla Merian (German, 1647-1717)

Passion Flower, 1730 by  Maria Sibylla Merian, published in Over de Voortteeling en Wonderbaerlyke Veranderingen der Surinamsche Insecten

Passion Flower, 1730 by
Maria Sibylla Merian, published in Over de Voortteeling en Wonderbaerlyke Veranderingen der Surinamsche Insecten

Merian was afforded artistic influence from the beginning.  Her father, Matthias Merian the Elder, was a prolific engraver and publisher, known for his scientific illustration in the work on alchemy.  He was well known for his engraving works that documented the New World, the Great Voyages (Frankfurt 1590-1622) .  He died when she was two. Her stepfather, Jacob Marrel, a painter, engraver and art dealer mentored her in these disciplines.  She would later marry one of Marrel’s students, Johann Andreas Graff, and they would have two daughters.

In the foreword to her book, the Metamorphosis of the Insects of Suriname (Amsterdam, 1705) Merian observes that in her career as an artist-naturalist she had worked from collected specimens that had been brought back to Holland.  She had made drawings and paintings from things that once were alive but in her studio lacked the life that could be observed if only she would go.  So she went: to a Dutch colony in Suriname, South America.   Merian’s work was not solo.  She was accompanied by her younger daughter, now also a talented artist.  They explored the rainforests, studying, collecting, drawing and painting the plants, insects and animals.  They cultivated a relationship with the native population and included native knowledge in their work, such as the medicinal applications for documented plants or which caterpillars eat which plants.  From firsthand observation she was able to make drawings that encapsulated the life cycle of these plants, thus displaying in one drawing:  the bud, the bloom, and the fruit.  Her work places a priority on presenting the ecosystem of the plant. (8)

Philip Reinagle (1749 – 1833)

Calliandra grandiflora, by Philip Reinagle (1749-1833) for the R. Thornton, Temple of Flora (1799-1807)

Calliandra grandiflora, by Philip Reinagle (1749-1833) for the R. Thornton, Temple of Flora (1799-1807)

Reinagle’s illustrative work in the Temple of Flora is a piece I have posted before, but it fits in this discussion.  R. Thornton, the organizer and publisher for this book, had a vision for his publication that included an unconventional format. Instead of the standard white background, he directed that the specimens should be displayed in their natural setting. Thornton said, “Each scenery is appropriated to the subject. In the large-flowering MIMOSA [Calliandra grandiflora], first discovered on the mountains of Jamaica, you have the humming birds of the country, and one of the aborigines struck with astonishment at the peculiarities of the plant.” (11)

The Naked Eye:

The naked eye has a hard time determining the depth of information in the anatomy of a honeybee.  Since bees will fly and are not still, it helps to find dead  specimens to pin on a board.  A few techniques to be considered:  working from dead specimens, working with a hand lens, copying the work of previous illustrators and finally raw observation.  Mentally bringing all of these experiences to bear upon a botanical illustration can make the results worth the effort.

Anatomy of honeybee, 1630 by Francesco Stelluti

Anatomy of honeybee, 1630 by Francesco Stelluti

Microscopy made this illustration by Francesco Stelluti possible.  Copying this kind of work allows any artwork that follows to be based on truth.

The illustration of honeybee anatomy on the left is listed as possibly the first one made from magnification.  The microscope was a doorman to unseen worlds, bringing specimens closer to the eye.   The engraving featured here was included as an illustration with a book of poems dedicated to the Cardinal Francesco Barberini.  Entomological microscopy opened new respect for the depth of design that was found in every realm of nature.  Note the story behind the coining of the term: cells.

In 1663, Robert Hooke, presented a study on the cork tree.  He used a compound microscope to make illustrations of their porous tissue.  Their appearance reminded him of rooms and thus he coined the term ‘cells’.  Hooke’s study in the field of microscopy led him to publish a book titled Micrographia that described this formerly unseen world as evidence of an omnipotent and creative creator.(13)

Cork cells, Roger Hooke, 1630

Cork cells, Roger Hooke, 1630

in the works of Nature, the deepest Discoveries shew us the greatest Excellencies. An evident Argument, that he that was the Author of all these things, was no other then Omnipotent(13)

One of the aids in  understanding the hidden relationship between bees and blooms is understanding the bee anatomy. Note the  illustration by R.E. Snodgrass on the anatomy of  honeybee legs.

Excerpt from The Anatomy of the Honey Bee, by R.E. Snodgrass 1910 (9)

Hind legs of honeybee, by R.E.Snodgrass, 1910

Hind legs of honeybee, by R.E.Snodgrass, 1910

The hind legs of all three forms, the ,worker (F), the queen (E), and the drone (H), have both the tibia and the large basal segment of the tarsus very much flattened. In the queen and drone there seems to be no special use made of these parts, but in the worker each of these two segments is modified into a very important organ. The outer surface of the tibia (F, Tb) is fringed on each edge by a row of long curved hairs. These constitute a sort of basket (Ob) in, which the pollen collected from flowers is carried to the hive. The structures are known as the pollen/ baskets, or corbicula. The inner surface of the large, flat, basal segment of the tarsus (lTar) is provided with several rows of short stiff spines (G) forming a brush by means of which the bee gathers the pollen from its body, since it often becomes covered with this dust from the flowers it visits for the purpose of getting nectar. When a sufficient amount is accumulated on the brushes it is scraped off from each over the edge of the tibia of the opposite hind leg and is thus stored in the pollen baskets. Hence the worker often flies back to the hive with a great mass of pollen adhering to each of its hind legs. The pollen baskets are also made use of for carrying propolis.

The honeybees need the plant: pollen, nectar, water and propolis are the building blocks of the honeybee life.  From those ingredients, they feed their young, create honey, and make wax for building their home.

‘Pollen, a plant protein source for the young, provides nitrogen, phosphorus, amino acids, and vitamins essential for development of these vegetarians… Nectar, obtained from floral nectaries deep within flowers, provides a pure carbohydrate source for all stages. Water is essential for hydrating all of the individuals within a hive and cooling it throughout the year. Propolis, the final substance brought into the hive, is also called “bee glue.” It is a plant resin used to build and maintain hives.’
(Introduction to Bee Biology by David Stone, 2005)

Local Pollinator Gardens

Visiting a pollinator friendly garden is fruitful.  Below is a list of local pollinators to keep on your radar.  This list was provided by the cooperative extension office and pictures of each are listed on their website.

List of NC Pollinators (not complete):

bees

Bees by Paul Mirocha

Shaggy fuzzyfoot bee
Carpenter bee
Swallowtail
Hummingbird moth
Sweat bee
Syrphid fly
Monarch caterpillar
Bumble bee
Ambush bug
Soldier beetles
Hairstreak butterfly
Honey bee
Halictid bees

Jean Henri Fabre

Stephen Lee, Crabspiders on Cistus, note the honeybees, 1979

Stephen Lee, Crab spiders (Thomisus onustus) camoflaged on Cistus, note the honeybees, 1979

Jean Henri Fabre is a Frenchman who made the study of insects an art-form.  Throughout his life he was a naturalist, a forerunner in the practice of field observation.  While managing a career as a school teacher and a home life of marriage and fatherhood he managed to write  many articles and books based on his observations of insects.  Perhaps one of his more famous studies was on the hunting wasp Cerceris.  Fabre’s passion was behavioral studies.  The illustration of the crab spiders ambushing the honeybee is an illustration from a book on Fabre’s work.

Fabre’s noted the following about the Crab spiders:

Here the bees plunder enthusiastically, fussing and bustling in the spacious whorls of the stamens.  The spider posts herself in her watch house under the rosy screen of a petal.  Cast your eyes over the flower.  If you see a bee lying lifeless with legs and tongue outstretched, draw nearer; nine times out of ten the Thomisus will be there.  The thug has struck a blow; she is draining the blood of the departed. (15)

The opportunity for observation is one that often has to be initiated.  For the illustrator, a pollinator garden is a welcome invitation to drawing models.  Creating hospitable environments for pollinators in your own yard is not only good for this year’s garden production, but the longer term payoff is also considerable.  One theme of recently published articles indicate that planting a mix of native wildflowers within your current garden and landscape design restores a resource that  attracts pollinators and helps to rebuild their populations.

Such personal and public display gardens, of course, give considerable satisfaction to their stewards. But do such plantings have any true conservation value in the face of all the human disturbance disrupting the subtle and complex interactions between plants and pollinators on a global scale?  In and of itself, a small pollinator garden for butterflies, hummingbirds, or bees cannot possibly conserve entire populations or species of threatened or endangered pollinators and plants.  It can, however, remind gardeners, neighbors, and others of the primacy of the precious keystone relationships between them. …To be sure, we are seldom moved to protect any life that we haven’t first noticed and then grown to know intimately and to love. (12)

Habitat loss is one of the conditions that causes bee declines and is a reachable response.   Those who are interested in pollinator conservation have a lot of resources to choose from, such as the Xerces foundation.  UNC’s botanical garden is a local source for botanical illustration classes and gardening resources for conservation: such as  native plants for your garden.  Locally, Forsyth county boasts the historic Reynolda Gardens.  As you well know this public resource is a center for  informal education, adult education and child education.  It was my honor to receive the hospitality of Reynolda Gardens as they welcomed the installation of a beehive in the garden.

While art has long presented blooms and bees as elements for the decorative arts, these elements are good and not just for the sake of their aesthetic beauty.    The relationship of pollination and propagation is intimately linked to our own survival.  The small scale of these blooms and bees does not equal the magnitude of their role in the bounty of our grocery stores, clothing outlets or national economy.

Posted in Botanical Illustration | Leave a comment

Botanical Illustration- Bees and Blooms

Upcoming Talk to be held at the Reynolda Gardens, Winston-Salem NC. April 29th, at 6:30pm.

Honey Bee

Apis Mellifera

In this community talk, I begin with sharing some of the selective history of botanical illustration with a focus on the pollinators. From there the talk with focus on specific illustrators and what applications there are for backyard naturalists who love to observe with their eyes and their sketchbooks.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

3 Artists

Winslow Homer,

1.

Where was Winslow Homer born?
(New England)
2.
What art school did Homer graduate from?
(none, he was self-educated, yet his mother deserves credit. She was a painter and shared her love of the craft with him.)
3.
What career moves did Homer take?
(lithograph assistant, artist-reporter)
4.
What kinds of art did Homer make?
( prints, drawings, paintings- first watercolor, then oil)
5.
What areas of the USA did Homer like to travel to paint?
(Maine and Florida)
6.
What recurring or repeated images do you see in Jim Dine’s artwork?
(landscape, figures working)
7.
What art movement is Jim Dine frequently associated with?
(realism, objective realism)

Images of Winslow Homer’s work

Jim Dine

1.

Where was Jim Dine born?
(Cincinnati, Ohio
2.
How old is Jim Dine?
(76 as of June 16, 2011)
3.
How many years ago did Jim Dine graduate from Ohio University with a BFA?
(54 years ago)
4.
What kinds of art does Jim Dine make?
(sculpture, prints, drawings, paintings, mixed media)
5.
What materials does Jim Dine use in his artwork?
(wood, bronze, metal, found objects, paint, ink)
6.
What recurring or repeated images do you see in Jim Dine’s artwork?
(hearts, Pinocchio, skulls, Venus, tools, bathrobes, etc. – many more items could be included
7.
What art movement is Jim Dine frequently associated with?
(Pop Art, but his work has continued to develop since the 1960’s and has since branched into many other areas as a result of focusing on long looking and draftsmanship.)

Images of Jim Dine’s ‘tools’

John White

1.

Where was John White born?
(England, 1543)
2.
For what reason  did White come to America in 1585?
(aritst and mapmaker for the English expedition to North Carolina)
3.
What recurring or repeated images do you see in White’s artwork?

(landscape, figures working, fruit, wildlife)
4.
For what purpose were the paintings used that he made of early North Carolina ?
(White’s observational paintings of the New World are the sole visual documentation of the native environment by the English settlers)
5.
What people did White meet in NC?
(Algonkin tribe: His portraits of them are of great historical significance)
6.
What civic/political role did White serve later in his life?
(governor of Roanoke Island- present day Dare Co. North Carolina)
7.
What motivated Sir Walter Raleigh to appoint White to this role?
(In 1586, when White and Raleigh traveled back to England, Raleigh tasked White with recruiting colonists for a new colony in the Chesapeake Bay area. White succeeded in convincing 113 people, including his daughter to join him.  Virginia Dare, his granddaughter, would later become the first born in this North Carolina colony.)

Images of John White’s work

 

 

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Botanical Illustration, a selective history

 This post is based on research from the following books/references:
Assigned reference numbers are included throughout the post to indicate a direct quote or an idea that was gleaned from research.
(1) The Art of Botanical Illustration by Wilfred Blunt & William T. Stearn
(2) The Clutius Botanical Watercolors by Claudia Swan
(3) Jim Dine: Flowers and Plants by Livingstone & Abrams
(4) Hokusai and Hiroshige by Honolulu Academy of Arts
(5) The Floating World of Ukiyo-e, from the The Library of Congress website
(6) Podcast: “Botanical Illustration” with Alice Tangerini, of the Smithsonian Museum
(7) Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of Art
(8) Linnè on line, a site dedicated to Linnaeus history by Uppsala University
(9) The Endeavor botanical illustrations, Natural History Museum, London, UK
(10) Wikipedia is referenced throughout this post for term definition and person identification

In writing this post, the information presented was edited to give a high level overview. The artists and developments chosen were pivotal in the developments of botanical illustration.

Palaeolithic cave paintings, Lascaux, France.

Palaeolithic cave paintings, Lascaux, France.

Palaeolithic cave paintings, Lascaux, France.

Palaeolithic cave paintings, Lascaux, France.

Palaeolithic cave paintings, Lascaux, France.

Palaeolithic cave paintings, Lascaux, France.

Palaeolithic cave paintings, Lascaux, France.

Palaeolithic cave paintings, Lascaux, France.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Man’s earliest art depicts the elements of hunting, but not the elements of gardening.  Dating back approximately 20,000 years, these cave drawings/paintings reveal that man’s hand for skilled draftsmanship  and composition and color was evident early on. The earliest artists looked with intensity at their world, in particular game and the hunt.  Their artwork shows that they observed well and they show us the synopsis of a hunt, of charging horses, of a bison being killed as well as his hunter. Recognizable plants are rarely found in man’s early art. Plants were domesticated for a long period before their form was found in art.

The possible medicinal power of plants was the beginning of scientific botany. Pharmacists-in-training would use the descriptions and later the illustrations to help identify the plants/herbs. Medicine linked with science, prepared the way for the herbal presence in art.

Term:

Florilegium:  The word is formed in the Latin flos (flower) and legere (to gather): literally a gathering of flowers. This term is used when referring to a collection of depictions of plant forms.

dragon-arum

Dracunculus vulgaris seedlings

syrian-plants,-at-karnak

Syrian plants, Egyptian stone relief in the Great Temple of Tuthmosis III at Karnak, c.1450 B.C.

One of the earliest known  florilegium is an Egyptian stone relief in the Great Temple of Tuthmosis III at Karnak c.1450 B.C.  This bas-relief recorded the spoils of a victory by Tuthmosis III collected during his campaign in Syria. An inscription reads, “all the plants that grow, all the goodly flowers that are in the Divine Land (country  NE of Egypt) His Majesty saith, ‘as I live, all these plants exist in very truth; there is not a line of falsehood among them. My Majesty hath wrought this in order to cause them to be before my father Ammon, in this great hall for ever and ever.'” (1)

 

Bramble (Rubus frutiicosus). watercolor from Dioscorides, Codex Vindobonesis. (A.D. 512). National Library, Vienna

Bramble (Rubus frutiicosus). watercolor from Dioscorides, Codex Vindobonesis. (A.D. 512). National Library, Vienna

In the first century A.D., two botanical works were created: the Natural History by the Elder Pliny in Latin and  De Materia Medica, written by a Greek military physician, Pedanius Dioscorides. This  later work would be a leader in the field  of pharmacology for over a thousand years.  The manuscript was not originally illustrated, but copied many times. In the year 512, a copied manuscript was made for the Byzantine princess Juliana Anicia, daughter of the Flavius Anicius Olybrius, Emperor of the West (Rome). The plant drawings in this codex seem to be made from earlier works, but they still offer quality in their naturalism. (1)

Piece of Turf, Albrect Durer (Das grosse Rasenstuck) watercolor, 1503. Albertina, Vienna

Piece of Turf, Albrect Durer
(Das grosse Rasenstuck)
watercolor, 1503. Albertina, Vienna

The practice of copying and recopying often led to stylization and loss of naturalism. Naturalism didn’t return until the 15th century. Two artists of this period show a renewed interest in observational painting: in Italy (Leonardo da Vinci), in Germany (Albrecht Dürer).  Dürer’s, Great Piece of Turf is a watercolor that displays such keen observation given to every weed, leaf and seed. This study of nature stands as an artistic first. Botanists can easily identify the unique species: such as the Taraxacum officinale (dandelion). A contemporary of Durer  is Weiditz and his work transitions into the printing technology of woodcut. (1&2)

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Botanical Illustration @ Reynolda Gardens

Winston Salem is a city that cherishes public gardens. Reynolda Gardens is one that was built Catherine Reynolds in the 1920’s and is a joy to visit. It’s in a French style, straight lines and a unique cottage mix of roses, vegetable and ornamental plants.

They have gracious invited me to make a presentation on Botanical Illustration, this October 1, 2013, at 12:30 pm. Here’s a link to their site with an announcement of the educational presentation.

Included in the discussion will be a brief history of botanical illustration. Following the talk, I will make a painting demonstration from a specimen in the garden.

You are invited.

Posted in Botanical Illustration | Leave a comment

Give Credit, Where Credit is Due

Over the past few years, the gardens of our neighborhood have been getting my attention. Conversations with my neighbors have spurred me to reconsider the garden and its role in our culture. Those gardeners have been so generous with their time and their understanding. I tease my neighbor across the way that her garden is so productive that she must sneak out at night and sing over her garden.

There are also institutions that I credit for their preservation of local gardens: Bethabara Park, Old Salem and Reynolda Gardens.  What’s not to like about gardening? There is design, there is process and of course the ever fleeting beauty.

At this same time I have also been meditating on artists that work in botanical illustration.  Earlier posts are evidence of that line of thinking. At this moment, I would like to credit the work of the following artists: Hokusai, Hiroshige, and ?.  The third artist is unknown, the work is a collection of watercolors called the Clutius Botanicals. In this post I will share some these artists’ images and conclude with some of the work I have  created in response.

broad-bean,vicia-faba

Broad Bean, Vicia Faba
Part of the Clutius Botanicals collection of watercolors

cuckoo-and-azaleas

Cuckoo and Azaleas
woodcut print by Zen Hokusai (1760-1849)
A sudden sunrise-
from a bamboo grove
in daytime, on the mountain,
to hear the first cry of a cuckoo.

duck-in-snow

Duck in Snow
woodcut print by Ichiriyusai Hiroshige (1786-1864)
The cry of the wild duck.
A gust of wind ripples
the icy water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the Renaissance, Botanical Illustration brought art and science together, letting each serve the other. The science of perspective and optics allowed for more accurate rendering and in turn the accuracy of art that observed and recorded the natural world aided those who were students of nature.  As seen in the Clutius Botanticals, the specimens are drawn from life. One sheet of paper includes the various stages of maturation.  Thus the artist could present more than the eye could see at one time. The image of Broad Bean, Vicia Faba is part of a collection of botanical illustrations made with the intent of educating medical students in the naming and identifying of herbals and plants in their pharmacopoeia.

Another historical credit belongs to Hokusai and Hiroshige. Their woodcut prints of flowers and birds reflected a classic Japanese theme of painting that they carried over to ukiyo-e prints. The inclusion of poetry reflects the society’s cultural and spiritual maturity. Consumers of the prints often wrote poetry.

The Okra, featured below, was made from specimens from the Old Salem heirloom garden and my own hortus (garden). This staple of the Southern dining room is honored with the following poem:

Palest creamy bloom
yields fruit with starry profile
batter, fry, enjoy!

Original Watercolor

Original Watercolor

Hand-colored Screen Print

Hand-colored Screen Print

Screen Print alone

Screen Print alone

Posted in Botanical Illustration, Old Salem, watercolor | Leave a comment